Cao Bằng


Geographical position

The administrative center of the province is Cao Bang City, 263 km from Hanoi.

333 km of terrestrial borderline to China with 1 international border gate (Ta Lung), 3 main pairs of border gates (Tra Linh, Soc Giang, Ly Van) and many other pairs of
border gates.

More than 30,130 ha of Border Economic Zone has attracted 60 effective investment
projects, including 09 foreign-invested projects.

The highway linking Tra Linh (Cao Bang) to Dong Dang (Lang Son) buiding project is
expected to start construction in October 2020, contributing to shortening the travel time from Hanoi to Cao Bang to 3-4 hours. It is expected that when the route is completed, Tra Linh border gate will be one of the centers of the corridor connecting trade between ASEAN – Vietnam – China because from the southwestern provinces of China via Tra Linh to Hai Phong sea port and radiating to ASEAN countries is the shortest way.

Secretary Lai Xuan Mon said that it was difficult to implement this project in Cao Bang province. Difficulties stem from many perspectives, especially in the context of limited state budget, the Government is also investing in many key projects. However, this project is extremely important for Cao Bang province, so it is suggested that the Government, ministries and branches support Cao Bang to share difficulties in socio-economic development of the province. Only developed transport infrastructure can attract businesses to Cao Bang to invest.


A complex type of terrain, which is represented on 3 main terrain regions: Karst terrain, High mountainous terrain, Lowland mountainous terrain.

Karst terrain: Occupying an area of most of the eastern districts of the province (Tra Linh, Trung Khanh, Quang Hoa, Ha Quang, Thong Nong…). The topography of this region is very
complex, including strongly separated limestone mountain systems. with sharp peaks like cat ears, rugged high and low, various natural burrows.

High mountainous terrain: Mainly distributed in western districts of the province (Nguyen
Binh, Bao Lac, Thach An) and a part of southern Hoa An. Most notably:

– Bao Lac – Nguyen Binh alpine system including many high mountain ranges with typical
peaks: Phja da (Bao Lac) 1,980 m above sea level; Phja Den (Nguyen Binh) 1,428 m; Phja
Oac (Nguyen Binh) 1,931 m. The alpine system is composed of the Hien river scallops and
acid-intrusive magmatic rocks – Granite.  Ngan Son

– Thach An alpine system including mountain systems arranged in ranges with
typical peaks: Pu Tang Lam 1,639 m above sea level; Khau Pau: 1,188m. This forming structure is mainly composed of sedimentary rocks of Hien river and an insignificant part of the early Paleozoic ceiling.

− Lowland mountainous terrain: Alternating with the high mountain systems are valleys, low mountains, rivers and streams with large sizes, large and small, morphologically different. Large valleys such as Hoa An, Nguyen Binh, Thach An, Bac Vong river valley … In which, more noticeable is the Hoa An valley – the granary of the province, coinciding with the northern part of the trough Cao Lang, nearly 30 km long.

Climate characteristics

Regarding the temperature regime:
– The annual average temperature is 21.6 oC;
– The lowest average temperature is 16.7 – 18.3 oC;
– The absolute maximum temperature is 40.5 oC (June);
– The absolute low temperature is 1.3 oC (December);
– The amplitude of temperature fluctuation is 8.4 oC;March 2020 4
– The average number of sunshine hours per year is 1,568.9 hours;
– The total average annual heatwave is about 7,000 – 7,500oC.

– The average amount of solar radiation on the days of the year is 13.68 (MJ/m2/day)

Regarding rain regime:
– The rainy season is from May to October, the average annual rainfall is 1,442.7
mm, the number of rainy days in a year is 128.3 days.

– Rainfall in the rainy season usually accounts for 70% of the annual rainfall and is concentrated in June, July, August, and August with the highest rainfall (reaching
267.1 mm).

Regarding humidity:
– The annual average relative humidity is 81%, highest is 86%, lowest is 36%.

Regarding evaporation:
– The annual average evaporation is 1,020.3 mm.  In the dry season months (from November of the previous to April of the following year), the amount of evaporation is usually greater than the amount of rainfall.

– The wet index in these months is usually below 0.5, causing severe drought.

In the prevailing wind direction: The Southeast and the South are the two main wind directions, the strongest
wind speed in whirlwinds is up to 40 m/s.

Hydrological characteristics

Depends mainly on the rainfall regime and the regulation capacity of the basin, divided
into two distinct seasons: flood season and dry season.

– Flood season regime: Flood season usually starts in June and ends in October. The
amount of water in this season usually accounts for 65-80% of the annual water. The
largest flow on the Bang River is 164 m3/s, on the Hien River, is 37.4 m3 /s. Every year in
the rainy season, flood is usually happen, but compared with the steep terrain, the floods
quickly recede and cause no serious consequences.

– Dry season regime: The dry season lasts about 3 months (from January to March). During
this season the smallest flow on the Bang River is 36.7 m3/s and on the Hien River 10.9 m3/s

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